Browsing by Author "Kao, Ming-Sung"
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ItemOn new ventures' board of directors: formation, adjustment, and influences on internationalizationTo survive and grow, young firms must leverage different means, such as strategic alliances or founders’ personal networks, to access and acquire necessary external resources to overcome, or at least mitigate, the liability of newness. In this study, we found that the board of directors can serve as a means of resource provision for new ventures. We conducted a historical analysis and case studies on high-tech new ventures, in order to delve deeply into the processes regarding how boards are formed, how board members provide these resources, and what factors influence the processes. Results showed that a board of directors is more likely to be formed when the funds are raised from institutional investors, rather of individual investors. Moreover, for founders, formation of the board connotes an exchange of partial ownership for critical external resources. When more resources are needed, founders adjust their boards. Adjustments of the board can be categorized into two: “planned board adjustments” are initiated by the founders to acquire external resources, while “required board adjustments” are set out by disgruntled board members, and reduced resource endowments of the firm. In addition, board members exploit their individual assets, experience, reputation, and personal networks to provide personally endowed resources to the new venture, and leverage their firms’ assets, reputation, and business networks to contribute organizationally endowed resources. Board members also facilitate new ventures’ internationalization.