Browsing by Subject "5-Hydroxymethylfurfural"
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ItemEffect of drying process on the production of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in citrofortunella microcarpa at two different maturity stagesCitrofortunella microcarpa is a well-known citrus fruit as a good source for flavonoids and antioxidant compounds in peels and seeds. However, they are leftover from juice industry. 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) is well-recognized for its dominant role in immunology field, and commonly found in thermal-processed products. Thus, this study aimed to first time report HMF discovery from dried C. microcarpa waste. A conventional hot air drying method was used to determine the effects of drying temperatures (30 - 70 °C) and times as well as the maturity stages of C. microcarpa on HMF production. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS") and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) were used to characterize the produced HMF. The results showed that HMF production was positively correlated with drying temperature and drying time. Furthermore, the mature fruits produced significantly higher HMF levels than immature fruits. The highest amount of HMF (0.86 mg/g dry weight) was obtained from drying mature fruit at 70°C for four days.